The article investigates traditional states in the context of their historical origin. The work substantiates that in the traditional legal order, land ownership generates political power distributed among several carriers, representing the community, and the other, the State itself. To describe the state's traditional form, the authors propose to use the concept of “diarchy”, which differs significantly from both the monarchical and the republican forms of the state. The authors show that the latter has not been adequately covered in the history of political and legal doctrines. However, it serves as the basis to develop monarchical and republican forms of government. In this respect, it is substantiated that in the era of traditional states, diarchy was a typical form of state organization, the essence of which was the division of power prerogatives between the supreme ruler, who concentrated priestly functions, and the “vice-king”, exercising the full military and administrative power.

Biografia do Autor

Valentin Ya. Liubashits, Southern Federal University

Dr. habil. in Law science, Professor, Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Faculty of Law, Southern Federal University, Ph.D. Law, Professor. 

Nikolai V. Razuvaev , North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

Dr. habil. in Law science, Professor, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil and Labor Law, North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 

Alexey Yu. Mamychev , Eastern Federal University

Dr. habil. in political science, Ph.D. in legal science, prof. Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Far Eastern Federal University.

Volodymyr A. Trofymenko, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University

Ph.D. in Legal Sciences, Associate Professor Philosophy Department, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Ukraine, Kharkiv. 

Vadim O. Danilyan , Ukrainian State University of Railway Transport

Ph.D. in Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Philosophy and Sociology Department Ukrainian State University of Railway Transport, Kharkiv, Ukraine, Address: 61050, 7 Feuerbach Square, Kharkiv, Ukraine. 


ELIZAROV, M.V. (2009). The state as an institutional form of organization of social and legal space. Bulletin of Bashkir University. Vol. 14. No. 2. pp. 617-619.
CHIRKIN, V.E. (2001). A modern state. M, pp. 135-137.
SPIRIDONOV, L.I. (2001). The general theory of state and law, M. pp. 49.
NERSESIANTS, V.S. (2006). Philosophy of law. 2nd ed., revised and extended. M.: Norma, pp. 835.
POLIAKOV, A.V. (20040. The general theory of law: problems of interpretation in the context of a communicative approach. St.P.: Publishing house of St.-Petersburg State University, pp. 863.
KULKOV, M.O. (2005). The mechanism and form of the state: questions of the relationship of concepts. Bulletin of Volgograd State University. Ser. 5. Jurisprudence. No. 7. pp. 124-128.
GUMPLOVICH, L. (1910). The general doctrine about the state. St., pp. 221.
NEPOMNIN, O.E. (1993). Transformation of the Chinese state in the first half of the XX century. The phenomenon of oriental despotism: the structure of governance and power / Ed. O.N. Ivanov. M. pp. 334-361.
MARX, K. (2008). The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Marx K. Engels F. Works. Vol. 8. pp. 119-217.
VOLKOV, A.K. (2006). The idea of Caesarism and the practice of its implementation in the period of the Second Empire in France. Roman private and public law: centuries-old experience in the development of European law. Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Roman Law, Moscow – Ivanovo (Suzdal), June 25–30, Ivanovo. pp. 94–97.
SCHUTZ, A. (2004). Equality and the meaning structure of the social world. A. Schutz, Selected works: A World Glowing with Meaning. M, pp. 625.
MASHKIN, N.A. (1949). Augustus’ Principate. Origin and social essence. M.
UTCHENKO, S.L. (1998). Caesar. Cicero and his time. M, pp. 286.
NEMIROVSKII, A.I. (2007). Ancient history: Antiquity. 2nd ed., revised and extended. M. pp. 880-881.
RADZIG, S.I. (1959). Cicero and his time. Cicero. 2,000 years since death. M. pp. 9-54.
MARINOVICH, L.P., & KOSHELENKO, G.P. (1994). Pausanias: Life and Work. Pausanias. Description of Hellas. In 2 volumes. M, Vol. 1, pp. 3-12.
ELNITSKII, L.A. (1980). New epigraphic data (Tabula Banasitana) and Edict of Caracalla on Roman citizenship. WDI. № 1, pp. 162-171.
MOMMSEN, T. (1997). History of Rome. In 4 volumes. Rostov-on-Don,. Vol. 3, pp. 412-420.
VASILIEV, L.S. (2007). General history. V.1. Ancient East and antiquity. M.: Vysshaia shkola,. pp. 287.
KANT, I. (1994). To the eternal world. Philosophical project. Kant I. Works. In 8 volumes. M. Vol. 7. pp. 16.
HEGEL, G.V. (1990). Philosophy of law. M. pp. 311-312.
DIAkonov, I.M., NERONOVA, V.D., & SVENTSITSKAIA, I.S. (1982). History of the Ancient World. Early antiquity. M. pp. 18-50.
WEBER, M. (2001). Agrarian history of the Ancient World. M.: KANON-Press-C: Kuchkovo pole, pp. 171-202.
ZHIDKOV, O.A., & KRASHENINNIKOVA, N.A. (1998). History of state and law of foreign countries. M. pp. 14-15.
KRADIN, N.N. (1995). Chiefdom: the present state of affairs and problems of study. Early forms of political organization: from originality to statehood. Chief Ed. V.A. Popov. M. pp. 47.
ROMANOV, V.N. (1991). Historical development of culture. Problems of typology. M. pp. 92-97.
NILSSON, M. (1933). Homer and Mycenae. London, pp. 220
RAZUVAEV, N.V. (2011). Elements of the dualism of royal power in Early Rome. History of State and Law. No. 7, pp. 9-14.
MARETINA, S.A. (1967). The community of the mountain peoples of Assam // Community and social organization among the peoples of East and Southeast Asia / Chief Ed. R.F. Its. L. pp. 20-25.
MARETINA, S.A. (1980). The evolution of the social system among the mountain peoples of Northeast India. M. pp. 174-180.
SIDAHOME, Y.E. (1964). Stories of the Benin Empire. London; Ibadan, pp. 49-65.
DIAKONOV, I.M. (1983). History of the Ancient East. The origin of the most ancient class societies and the first centers of the working-class civilization. Part one. Mesopotamia. M. pp. 168-170.
POLIAKOVA, G.F. (1983). Greek societies of the 2nd millennium BC. Ancient Greece: problems of the development of the policy. V.1: The formation and development of the polis. M.: Nauka,. pp. 62-70.
CHEDWICK, Y. (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge, pp. 71.
LEJEUNE, M. (1965). Le damos dans la societe mycennienne. Revue des Etudes Greques., 78. pp. 4.
BUZESKUL, V.P. (2003). The history of Athenian democracy. St.P. pp. 35.
EGOROV, A.B. (2006). Roman state and law. The royal period and the era of the Republic. St.P. pp. 38.
KOFANOV, L.L. (2001). The nature of royal power in Rome in VIII - VI centuries BC. Antiquity and medieval studies. Collection of scientific works. Issue 3 / Chief Ed. V.V. Dementieva. Yaroslavl, pp. 14-24.
GJERSTAD, E. (1972). Innerpolitische und militärische Organisation in frührömischen Zeit // Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt. Bd. I. Teil 1. Berlin; New York, S. pp. 143-145.
KOFANOV, L.L. (2008). Lex and ius: the emergence and development of Roman law in the VIII-VI centuries BC. M. pp. 195.
PASKOV, S.S. (1987). Japan in the Early Middle Ages, VII-XII centuries. M.
ALAEV, L.B., & ASHRAFIAN, K.Z. (2002). History of the East. In 6 volumes. V. 2. East in Middle Ages. M. pp. 339.
MULLER, A. (2004). History of Islam: From Muslim Persia to the fall of Muslim Spain. M. pp. 706-710.