• Reza Abedi Gonabad Imam Reza International University
  • Roqayyeh Sadat Hosseini Kerman Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Fatemeh Daneshvar Muhammadzadegan Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Fatemeh Miri kolahkaj Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


In terms of regionalism, West Asia seems to be an exceptional case of the world’s regional situations. That is because the region’s countries are predominantly acting in a self-centered manner. Moreover, due to their dependency on foreign countries, they lack the required competency for positive role-playing in the convergence process. But, the Islamic Republic of Iran that is pursuing the transformation to a regional power after the Islamic Revolution, especially after 2001, has paid a greater deal of attention to regionalism. However, there are challenges to Iran’s regionalism in western Asia. According to the study findings, regionalism’s challenges can be investigated in three levels: national level (opposite attitudes towards regionalism), regional level (divergence of the region’s countries and competitiveness of Saudi Arabia) and trans-regional level (the influence of the western liberal- democratic discourse and its conflict with Islamic Republic of Iran’s discourse and Shiism phobia and Iran phobia).

Biografia do Autor

Reza Abedi Gonabad, Imam Reza International University

Ph.D. of Cultural Policy-Making, International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, Iran.

Roqayyeh Sadat Hosseini Kerman, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

B.A. graduate, political sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Fatemeh Daneshvar Muhammadzadegan, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

M.A. graduate, international relations, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Fatemeh Miri kolahkaj, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

M.A. graduate, international relations, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Abedi Gonabad, R., (2017). “Islamic Republic of Iran’s discourse in Middle East and the confronted challenges”, PhD treatise on cultural policy-making, Mashhad, Imam Reza (PBUH) International University.

Abrahamian, Y., 2010. ‘the history of modern Iran”, tr, Muhammad Ebrahim Fattahi, Tehran, Nay.

Aram, A., 2016. “Iran and Saudi Arabia: competition over influence in Middle Easst”, seasonal journal of politics, 3(9): 79-89.

Artes, P., 2000. “regional Middle East without regionalism or termination of exclusivism”, journal of political-economic information, tr. Abbas Hatamizadeh, 15(161&162): 88-97.

Atwan, Abd Al-B., 2017. “Saudi Arabia’s real goals in buying 500 billion dollars of weapons from the US”, accessible from (retrieved at 27th of October, 2017).

Azghandi, A. R. and Agha Alikhani, M., 2013. “investigating the factors of regional divergence in Iran-Saudi Arabia relations (2005-2011)”, seasonal journal of politics, 43(2): 225-243.

Barzegar, K. and Ghasemi, M., 2013. “the strategy of Israel’s existential threat and Iran’s national security”, seasonal journal of foreign relations, 5(1): 169-197.

Barzegar, Kaihan,(2009),Regionalism in foreign policy of islamic republic of iran, Central Eurasian Studies research quarterly,2(5):23-40.

Brecher, M. and Wilkenfeld, J., 2004. “the crisis of conflict and instability”, tr. Ali Sobhdel, Tehran, strategic studies center.

Dehghani Firuzabadi, Jalal, (2008), “the necessities of regionalism in the actualization of Islamic Republic of Iran’s regional superiority”, strategic attitudes, 8(87): 57-88.

Dehghani Firouzabadi, S. J. and Nouri V., 2012. “an analysis of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s interaction with Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (2005-2012)”, seasonal journal of international relations, 1(5): 9-52.

Guha, S. 2019. “Sanctions Are Coming”: Fear and Iranophobia in American Foreign Policy.E-international Relations Students.

Hafezian, Muhammad Hussein, (2009), “Iran in Middle East: future trends of the region”, seasonal journal of central Eurasia’s studies, 2(5): 61-78.

Hanizadeh, Hasan, (2017), “new friends of Zionism”, available in (accessed at 16th of October, 2017).

Heise, A. and Serfraz Khan, A. 2018. A Political Economy Approach, Discussion Papers, Center for Economic and Sociological Studies, no. 71, Center for Economic and Sociological Studies (ZÖSS), Hamburg.25 pages.

Hetne, B., 2012. “globalism and modern regionalism”, tr. Ali Reza Tayyeb, Tehran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Publication Office.

Hinebush, R. and Ehteshami, A. 2011. “foreign policy of the Middle Eastern Countries”, trs. Rahman Ghahramanpour and Mortaza Massah, Tehran, Imam Sadeq (PBUH) University Press.

Jalali, R. and Najafi, R., 2008. “expansion of Iran’s regionalism in Arabian Middle East”, seasonal journal of political sciences and international relations, 2(5): 97-124.

Kamran, H. and Karimipour, Y. (2002), “globalization, regionalism and nation-states”, seasonal journal of geographical studies, 34(42): 39-47.

Koelbl, S., Shafy, S., and Zand, B. 2016. “Saudia Arabia and Iran: The Cold War of Islam”, 9th of May, revised at: (Access: 28 May 2016).

Labibi, M. M., 2008. “liberal democracy, an unfulfilled wish: reviewing of the theories proposed about liberal democracy”, Tehran, Criticism of Thoughts.

Mahpishanian, Mahsa, (2011), “regionalism in Middle East: an analysis from the perspective of structural theories and intellectual theories”, seasonal journal of Middle East studies, 18(64): 39-66.

Moradian, M., 2008. “Iran’s pattern of coalition for the actualization of the goals of the vision plan”, strategic attitudes, 8(87): 139-164.

Mosallanejad, A., 2016. “policy-making of regional balance in Iran-Saudi Arabia’s relations”, seasonal journal of politics, journal of law and political sciences’ department, 46(4): 1067-1087.

Musavi, M. and Talya’ei, 2012. “the effect of ideological issues on Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy in respect to Iran since 2003 on”, seasonal journal of political and international research, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, 11(26): 61-100.

Musavi, R., 1996. “the role of regionalism in managing the regional crisis”, seasonal journal of the central Asian and Caucasian studies, 5(15): 43-60.

Naghibzadeh, A. 2009. “theoretical and practical challenges in Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy”, seasonal journal of international foreign relations, 1(2): 33-55.

Nasri, M., 2012. “Iran; yesterday, today and tomorrow: an analysis of Islamic Republic of Iran”, Qom, the office for promoting teachings.

Niakou’ei, S. A. and Asgarian, M., 2015. “twenty-year vision plan; regional rivals and the necessity for regionalism in Iran’s foreign policy”, seasonal journal of the international relations, 1(17): 69-103.

Pandi, S. K. and Behboudinejad, Gh., 2015. “consequences of nuclear agreement and its effect on Iran’s regional policies”, seasonal journal of foreign policy, 29(80): 57-78.

Pollack, K., 2015. "The Dangers of the Arab Intervention in Yemen", Washington DC: Brookings Institution.

Sadeghi, H. and Ahmadian, H., 2010. “the change in Yemen’s regional stance: facilities and challenges”, seasonal journal of strategy, 19(56): 253-280.

Sari’e Al-Qalam, M., 2005. “Iran and globalization”, Tehran, strategic research center.

Simbor, R., 2006. “regionalism and peace in world with an emphasis on Persian Gulf”, seasonal journal of geographical vista, 1(1): 19-34.

Simbor, R., 2009, “Iran and regionalism in southwest Asia: strategies and solutions in Iran’s foreign policy”, theoretical policy research, (5): 113-128.

Talebi, A. and Zakerian, M., 2015. “extremist Salafi Islam and formation of modern regionalism in Middle East; Islamic Republic of Iran in the process of modern regionalism”, seasonal journal of Islamic Republic’s solution, 9(32): 65-84.

Turak, N. 2017. “Saudi Arabia has become an irrational actor in the Middle East, says analyst”, 23rd of November.

Vasegh, M. and Ahmadi, A. 2014. “Omm Al-Qora and regionalism mindset”, seasonal journal of defensive policy, 22(86): 9-28.

Wastnidge, E. 2017. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination. Cambridge J. Eurasian Stud. 1: #1YRJ04, 13 pages.